Research Project: History of Photography

I have been researching the impact of digital technology on the medium of photography for the final research project. In the beginning of the Photography BA course I was confronted with a very simple question, that provoked me with endless thoughts on the future of photography, and my place within the discipline. Though the greatest challenge was to give an appropriate answer, which at the time seemed impossible.
Ever since I read Fred Ritchin’s essay “After Photography”, I have been questioning what is the meaning of the changes in photography and where is this leading to. Another reason I was eager to find more theoretical approach on the subject, is my own practice for the past two years. I have been working mostly in digital, and many times exploring unconventional ways of seeing a photograph.

The nature of the computational environment, is very different from the physical space. The paper or any other physical object and the digital or binary representations are environments which facilitate photographs/images.
I realized I had to gain greater knowledge on the form of photography and media before the rise of digital technologies, and how it was perceived in the context of culture and society.

My immediate response was looking into media rather solely photography, as it has been an area of interest for about a year. I considered t approaching photography from a media theory point of view rather than art. I am not saying that they is no connection between the two, or they are two separate sides. What I wished to elicit though, was theories based on the technological evolution of the medium, rather than the photograph as a work of art.

By now I have concluded that the photographic apparatus is the element of my study, perhaps an unconscious decision, based on my personal interests on technology. I was aware that photography as practice has been around for a very long time. I set as a starting point the fully operating products, that could potentially fix light onto a surface.

Being already introduced to Marshall Mcluhan’s theories, I considered the apparatus role significant to the changes that photography causes in society. I will be discussing on a separate post, the connections between Mcluhan’s work and the photographic apparatus.

Below is short historical overview of technological advancements in the photographic apparatus starting with the concept of the Camera Obscura.

The oldest concept associated with photography is camera obscura. Camera stands for chamber or room and obscura for dark. The principal for projecting light on a vertical plane always involved the darkened chamber with a hole on one side, to let light in. This simple configuration allows for an image projected on a plane, with colour and perspective preserved, but rotated at 180 degrees.
The lens was the next new element to be added to the configuration, to allow a brighter and sharper image to be reproduced. At the time recording an image was only possible by tracing on paper. A mirror was added in between the lens and the focal plane, which helped significantly tracing by altering the direction of the light.
The earliest documented attempts to fix light on a surface, involved chemical products, like silver chloride, that reacted when exposed to light. Further experimentation led to different ingredients being used, the most successful of them being silver coated plates, treated with iodine vapor, to become light sensitive, developed in mercury vapor and fixed with sodium chloride. This process is called daguerreotype or wet plate, lending its name from its inventor, Louis Daguerre.

As you understand this is a process that takes long time, patience, skills and knowledge for a person to practice, which limited its use to the professional. Less than twenty years later the process becomes simplified with the invention of the collodion dry plates. Another twenty years later the gelatin dry plate is invented, with better image output than any process so far.

It wasn’t only the recording medium that evolved but the mechanisms within the camera. Focusing was introduced by adjusting the distance between the lens and the focal plane. The invention of the mechanical shutter dramatically changed the practical uses and aesthetics of photography, just before Kodak’s commercial breakthrough.

While in research to create a compact camera, Oskar Barnack, optical engineer and designer,
created the much now celebrated 35mm camera. The 35mm signifies the culmination of a century’s worth of research in the field of photography. Respectively, the digital camera signifies the accumulated knowledge and practice of the 35mm.

List of References:
Newhall, B. (1982) The History of Photography : From 1839 to The Present. London: Secker & Warburg

Malcolm, D. (2000) Daguerre (1787–1851) and the Invention of Photography in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, [online] available from <; [17 February 2014]

Peres, M. (2007) The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography: Digital Imaging, Theory and Applications, History, and Science. Amsterdam; London: Elsevier/Focal Press

Hand, M. (2012) Ubiquitous Photography [Digital Media And Societies Series]. Cambridge: Polity Press


Task 2 – Human Presence Still-lives

Revisit your chosen location again devoid of human presence. This time you should look for the evidence of its erstwhile inhabitants and produce a series of photographic still-lives of this subject matter.

You can document the artefacts in situ or away from the site (whichever you prefer), naturally/ artificially lit or a combination thereof, the crucial thing is that when we look at these items they should appear as something entirely new to us and drenched in the magic of your location and redolent of the way that you see the world.

You should again apply the knowledge garnered throughout Level One, drawing on inspiration from the range of artists and practitioners so far covered as well as your own research and investigations. You should continue to develop your own practice within the module and strive to communicate your unique vision of the world.

When this task came up I couldn’t find a way to follow the brief in a realistic way so I decided to change the theme and the location. I used a storage room situated at the back of the garden. This storage room/parking space is full of old used materials of any kind; doors, beds, tiles, chairs and some old tools. I liked the idea of investigating the things individually and start imagining their previous use inside the house was. I am sure they had their days of glory, but now are retired and left to rot.

For this task I used a Diana F+ with colour and B&W 120 rolls and the pinhole setting. It is so simple you just have to take the lens off and use the pinhole ring on the aperture. I used a flashgun that came with the kit on some the photographs.

In order to support Task 2 I made some photographs according to Task 1 brief to fill any possible gaps.

Task 1 – Human Presence

This is the first task we were assigned to for the module ‘Working With Light’.

Consider a place which, when populated by certain individuals or groups of people, is transformed momentarily. It may be a public space where people convene or a private space where for instance; a liaison takes place between two lovers.

Now investigate photographically, the personality of this place when it is devoid of human presence.

You will have little control of the light with your hand-made camera and so you will have to test and learn how it interprets the world. Through your testing you will begin to understand how the pinhole records an image and very quickly to project this vision onto your subject, before the negative is made. This understanding is what we refer to as pre-visualisation. It is especially important when working with such rudimentary equipment as (unless you make a more sophisticated version) your camera will have only one exposure in it.


My response to the task:

One day I we had some guests over at the house, and because the weather was good we decide to have dinner in the garden. When everyone finished eating an idea came in mind. I didn’t let anyone to clean up the table and send in to make some coffee. I went straight to my room and loaded the pinhole camera with a 5 x 7 resin coated, black and white paper. I used a garbage bin to keep the camera steady slightly higher than the table’s level and took a picture of the table. The table was full of cans and plates, some leftovers and glasses but no people.

I made three photographs with different exposure times, because my camera was still under construction and I didn’t have the time to test it. In this way I recorded a place that was devoid of human presence. When in the darkroom I found out that I needed less exposure time and because I couldn’t recreate the moment I used the best one only. It took me too much time to make a good contact print but it was exciting to find out that my new pinhole was working well enough. I still need to make some modifications to the shutter but here are the results.